2022考研翻譯碩士筆譯技巧:切分與合并

最后更新時間:2021-06-17 11:29:37
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  打算2022考研的考生即將進入暑期強化階段,近些年來,專業碩士越來越受考研學生歡迎,其中報考翻碩的就逐年增多,競爭激烈。下面小編為大家整理了2022考研翻譯碩士筆譯技巧:切分與合并,希望能對各位2022考研的考生有所幫助,一起來看。

  一、切分

  英語中長句較多,句中修飾語多且長,使句子結構復雜,所以英譯漢時,不能照樣克隆復制,而是得根據漢語語法的特點,靈活處理。切分就是一種常用的方法,是指把英語中的長句分解成兩個或兩個以上的句子。它常包括單詞分譯、短語分譯和句子分譯等三種情況。

  (一)單詞分譯

  單詞分譯是指把原文中的一個單詞拆譯成一個小句或者句子。采用單詞分譯主要有兩個目的:一是為了句法上的需要。由于一些單詞在搭配、詞義等方面的特點,直譯會使句子生硬晦澀,翻譯腔十足,而把某個單詞分譯卻能使句子通順,且不損傷原意。二是為了修飾上的需要,如加強語氣,突出重點等。英語中的名詞、動詞、形容詞和副詞等都可分譯。例如:

  (1)We recognize that China's long-term modernization program understandably and necessarily emphasizes economic growth.

  我們認識到,中國的長期現代化計劃以發展經濟為重點,這是可以理解的,也是要的。

  (2) Then and there he named the startled General lying wounded on his cot the new Commander in Chief of the Airforce…

  他就在當時當地任命這位躺在榻上治傷的將軍為空軍總司令,使這位將軍吃了一驚。

  (3) A movie of me leaving that foxhole would look like a shell leaving a rifle.

  我離開那個貓兒洞的速度之快,要是拍成電影的話,會象出膛的子彈一樣。

  (4) Yet it is painfully apparent that millions of Americans who would never think of themselves as law-breakers, let alone criminals, are taking increasing liberties with the legal codes that are designed to protect and nourish their society.

  顯然,數百萬美國人從來沒有想過自己會違法,更不用說犯罪了,而就是他們正在越來越肆意歪曲旨在保護和培育這個社會的法律條文,這真令人痛心。

  (原文中painfully apparent如照字面譯成"痛心地明顯的",不合漢語表達習慣,將painfully單譯成句,既突出了重點,表明作者對這一現象感到痛心的心情,又使語言自然流暢。)

  (5) At present people have a tendency to choose the safety of the middle-ground reply.

  現在,人們都傾向于采取不偏不倚的態度來回答問題,因為它安全,不招風險。

  (choose the safety of the middle-ground reply如機械直譯成"選擇不偏不倚回答問題的安全",語言晦澀難懂。將safety分譯出來則較好地解決了這一問題。)

  (6) Auntie Julia vainly asked each of her neighbours in turn to tell her what Gabriel had said.

  朱利亞姨媽接連向坐在旁邊的人打聽加布里埃爾剛才說了些什么,卻沒有問出個所以然來。

  (二)短語分譯

  短語分譯是指把原文中的一個短語分譯成一個句子。名詞短語、分詞短語、介詞短語等有時都可以分譯成句。例如:

  (1) These cheerful little trams, dating back to 1873, chug and sway up the towering hills with bells ringing and people hanging from every opening.

  這些令人歡快的小纜車建于1873年,嘎嚓嘎嚓搖擺爬上高聳的山巒。車上鈴兒叮當作響,每個窗口都是人。(介詞短語分譯)

  (2) The military is forbidden to kill the vessel, a relatively easy task.

  軍方被禁止擊毀這艘潛艇,雖然要擊毀它并不怎么費事。(名詞短語分譯)

  (3) Invitingly green Angel Island, once a military installation, contains meandering trails and picnic spots ideal for a day's excursion.

  迷人的天使島郁郁蔥蔥,小徑蜿蜒,是一日游的理想野餐場所。但在過去它卻是一個軍事基地。(名詞短語分譯)

  (三)句子分譯

  句子分譯可以分為簡單句的分譯、并列復合句的分譯、主從復合句的分譯以及其他情況的分譯。

  A.簡單句的分譯

  (1) Daybreak comes with thick mist and drizzle.

  黎明時分,大霧彌漫,細雨蒙蒙。

  (2) But another round of war in the region clearly would put strains on international relations.但是,如果該地區再次發生戰爭,顯然會使國際關系處于緊張狀態。

  B.并列復合句的分譯

  并列英語復合句常常在分句連接處加以切分,譯成兩個或兩個以上的句子。例如:

  (1) I sat with his wife in their living room, looking out the glass doors to the backyards, and there was Allen's pool, still covered with black plastic that had been stretched across it for winter.

  我跟他妻子一起坐在他們家的起居室里,望著玻璃門外的后院。后院里有阿倫的游泳池,上面還蓋著過冬時鋪上去的黑色塑料蓬。(在連詞and處切分)

  (2) On her once familiar street, as in any unused channel, an unfamiliar queerness had silted up; a cat wove itself in and out of railings, but no human eye watched Mrs Drover's return.

  走在一度熟悉的大街上,就像在一條沒有人走過的道路上一樣,她心里充滿了從未有過的新奇。一只貓在欄桿那兒繞來繞去,但是沒有人留意特羅弗太太回來。(在;處切分)

  (3) The entire cable-car system recently got an overhaul after more than a century of operations, so you are on firm ground even if the streets seem to be tilting beneath you.

  在運行了一個世紀之后,最近對整個纜車系統進行了徹底檢修。所以即使你覺得街道似乎在下面傾斜,你在纜車上仍很安全。(在連詞so處切分)

  (4) The recruitment of Chinese labor was not universally accepted in racially conscious 19th century America and some white workers were unsettled by their appearance in large numbers.

  在種族意識十分強的19世紀的美國,招募中國勞工的做法并非普遍為人接受。由于工地上大批出現中國勞工,某些白人工人感到心緒不寧。(在連詞and處切分)

  C.主從復合句的分譯

  英語復合句漢譯時常在分句連接處加以切分,分譯成兩個或兩個以上的句子。例如:

  (1) One day, while out on the bleak moors, Pip is startled by a hulking, menacing man who threatens him if he does not bring him some food immediately.

  匹普外出在陰冷的荒原上游蕩時,一個魁梧、兇狠的男子把他嚇了一跳。這個男子威脅他,讓他立即為他送些食物來。(在who引導的從句前切分)

  (2) All this had come to an end in 1905 when the medical mission was dissolved and several of Mother's colleagues were killed in the uprising.

  1905年,這一切都宣布結束了。在一次暴動中,媽媽的幾個同事犧牲了,醫療隊也解散了。(when處切分)

  D.其他情況的分譯

  有些長句的翻譯得根據具體情況、意群的分布等進行靈活處理,合理進行切分,使譯文層次分明,觀點明確。例如:

  (1) Suddenly the door bursts open and the Time Traveler appears, dirty, disheveled, and bedraggled,with a nasty cut on his chin.

  突然,門猛然開了,時間旅行家出現。他十分骯臟,衣冠不整,滿身是泥,下巴頦被嚴重劃傷。(在appear后切分)

  (2) The boy and the woman were already seated by spread table-cloth when the man came down to them, dressed in his business suit and vest and tie and hat as if he expected to meet someone along the way.

  等到男人走過來時,女人和孩子早已挨著地上鋪開的桌布邊坐好了。男人身穿上班的套裝和背心,系著領帶,戴著帽子,似乎估計路上會遇到什么人似的。(分詞短語前切分)

  二、合并

  一般說來,英語句子要比漢語句子長,英譯漢時切分用得較多;但是較口語化的英語句子也比較短,英譯漢時有時也得用合并。合并常用于以下二種情況:

  (一)簡單句與簡單句的合并

  把原文中的兩個或兩個以上的簡單句合并成一個句子。例如:

  (1) She is intelligent, ambitious and hard-working. She is also good at solving problems.

  她很有才智、雄心勃勃、工作努力,還善于解決問題。(兩句合一)

  (2) The door was unlocked. She went inside and sat in a stupor. She was near collapse,barely able to move her swollen feet.

  門沒鎖上,她走了進去,呆呆地坐了下來,極度的衰弱幾乎使她無力挪動她那紅腫的雙腳。(三句合一)

  (3) I pulled up a chair and sat down. I sat with my legs wide apart at first. But this struck me as being irreverent and too familiar. So I put my knees together and let my hands rest loosely on them.

  我把椅子挪過去坐下,開始兩腳分開,但我突然覺得這樣顯得不尊重,太不拘禮節,便把兩膝并攏,把雙手隨便地放在膝蓋上。(四句合一)

  (二)復合句的合并

  把原文中的主從復合句或并列復合句譯成一個簡單句或詞組。例如:

  (1) We are going to have to be prepared to operate with people who are nuts.

  我們將不得不應付那些難對付的家伙。

  (2) And he found himself trying to suppress a bitterness that was soul-destroying.

  他發現自己在竭力抑制損傷靈魂的苦澀。

  (3) Many people have married whose chances to do so were much inferior to Miss Martha's.

  許多條件遠不如瑪莎的人都已結了婚。

  (4) The diagnosis seems in every case to correspond exactly with all the sensations that I have ever felt.

  每次看病的診斷似乎都和我所有的感覺完全相符。

  (注:本文來自網絡,如有侵權,請聯系刪除)

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